Human Heart. Anatomy of the Heart. Cardiovascular System

Human Heart. Anatomy of the Heart. Cardiovascular System

Anatomy of the Heart The heart is located in the thoracic cavity between the lungs within the mediastinum. It is a hollow, cone-shaped, muscular organ about the size of a fist. Figure 12.1 shows that the base (the widest part) of the heart is superior to its apex (the pointed tip), which rests on the diaphragm. Also, the heart is on a slant; the base is directed toward the right shoulder, and the apex points to the left hip. The base is deep to the second rib, and the apex is at the level of the fifth intercostal space.     As the heart pumps the blood through the pulmonary and systemic vessels, it performs these functions:1. keeps O2-poor blood separate from O2-rich blood;2. keeps the blood flowing in one direction-blood flows away from and then back to the heart in each circuit;3. creates blood pressure, which moves the blood through the circuits;4. regulates the blood supply based on the current needs of the body.

Figure 12.1 Cardiovascular system. The right side of...
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